Like all living things on earth, a garden needs to be irrigated, but that doesn’t mean that you have to irrigate the fruit trees from morning to evening, hoping to saturate the harvest “to the brim”: like any agricultural method, in blog with lawn care tips we will tell you how to irrigate wisely. When watering your garden, it is important to comply with regulations and deadlines and to use water with a certain content of soluble salts.
By water demand, fruit crops can be arranged as follows – from more demanding to less demanding: quince, apple tree, pear, plum, cherry, cherry, peach, apricot. Plants consume the most water during the growing season when there is an intensive growth of the root system, shoots, leaf apparatus, setting and formation of the crop.
How to water the garden so that fruit trees give a good harvest?
DO-IT-YOURSELF WATERING THE GARDEN: QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF WATER
Fruit-bearing plantations on a strong-growing stock with a round crown in the garden should be watered at least 4 times with a norm of at least 60-80 liters of water per 1 m2. The first watering is done at the beginning of the active growth of shoots and fruits, the rest – at intervals of 25-30 days.
Equal-aged trees on weak rootstocks, thickened, with planar crown formation are watered up to 6 times per season with a frequency of 20-25 days, with a norm of 40-80 l per 1 m2. Watering begins here earlier than on ordinary trees, all the while controlling the degree of soil moisture (to the touch).
In dry years, two weeks before the expected frosts (October – the first decade of November), water-charging irrigation is carried out with a high norm of up to 100-120 liters of water per 1 m2. At this time, the roots absorb moisture much less, the risk of the resumption of growth processes decreases, and the resistance of trees to frost decreases. Moisture-charging irrigation creates conditions for protecting the root system from freezing, increases the winter hardiness of plants and provides them with moisture for the growing season of next year.
Fruit trees and shrubs require sufficient moisture. When watering the garden with your own hands, do not allow the root layer to dry out, but do not over-moisten it, because the latter is no less dangerous to the life of the tree. Consider the level of groundwater.
It should be within the limits defined for each fruit crop:
- apple tree – 150 cm;
- pear – 180-200 cm;
- sweet cherry – 200-210 cm;
- plum – 100-120 cm;
- berry bushes – 100 cm.
When calculating the rate of watering a fruit tree, you need to proceed from the diameter of the trunk circle, which, depending on the age of the tree, should be different.
Often gardeners ask how much water should be given to a tree? The usual norm is 50-60 liters per 1 m2 of the crown to wet the soil by 50-150 cm. For irrigation, as noted earlier, along the perimeter of the crown of the tree, plus another 50% of its diameter. Dig a groove of 20 x 25 cm with a dump of the earth on the outside of the groove (so that after watering it could be easier to throw a groove). Try not to use cold water for direct irrigation directly from the tap, well. It is better if it first warms up in the tank, pool. After watering, fill the groove with soil from the roller. Do not forget that surface irrigation is harmful.
One more important agricultural method should not be forgotten, especially in hot, dry weather: the soil in the garden should be loosened regularly. For this, all means are good: choppers, rakes or Fokin’s plane cutter. This is the so-called “dry watering”. It is very useful in the orchard.
Berry crops are watered once a month. In this case, the earth is shoveled from the base of the bush. 30-40 liters are applied in bowls to the bush with the simultaneous application of fertilizers. But I water the raspberries no more than 1 time in 3-4 weeks, the last – in early September.
Errors when watering the garden and irrigation of berry plantations:
- Watering with cold water, use settled water from the storage tank.
- Use of industrial or drinking water (chlorinated).
- Water for irrigation should be without exceeding a salt concentration of more than 1000 mg.
- Watering is carried out in a closed way (furrows, bowls, etc.) after each watering does loosening.
- Watering should be carried out regularly depending on the needs of the culture and, if possible, to do winter recharge.
- Use dry watering.
For all plants of fruit crops, it is important not only the amount of water used for irrigation but also its quality.
Water is considered good for watering trees in the garden if it contains 400 mg / l of water-soluble salts. If the mineralization of salts is higher (400-1000 mg / l), look for salt-tolerant plants. The limit of 1000-3000 mg of salts per 1 liter is dangerous for soil and plants and is not used for irrigation.
The watering period for garden plants is determined according to the moisture content of the active soil layer, which is determined by touch: they take the soil from a depth of 30-35 cm and squeeze it in the hand, if the lump in the hand does not crumble, then watering is not required. If the soil crumbles, watering is a must. The irrigation rate is calculated on the moistening of the root layer of the soil.
In ordinary Azov chernozems, the active layer is considered to be:
- for pome crops – 0.5-0.8 m;
- for stone fruits – 0.4-0.6 m.
In the conditions of ordinary Azov chernozems, the root habitable layer is considered to be:
- for pome crops – 1.5-1.6 m;
- for stone fruits – 1.2-1.4 m.
In this regard, the norms of watering the garden are as follows: after planting, young plantings are irrigated 3-4 times during the growing season, 15-25 liters of water per 1 m2 of the trunk circle, in subsequent years, plants are watered 1-2 times before fruiting, but the amount of water increase to 90 liters per 1 m2. Lead watering through grooves with a depth of 20 cm and a width of 20-25 cm or into furrows of 20 x 25 cm, one on each side of the row at a distance of 0.8-1.0 m from the trees.
Rare watering of young trees with small irrigation rates provides moisture to the root layer and depth. In this case, the optimum (70% PV) soil moisture level in the active layer is maintained.
WATER RECHARGE IRRIGATION OF GARDEN PLOTS
A lack of moisture in the summer, combined with high air temperature, can lead to premature aging of the tree and shorten its lifespan. Often, for this reason, the trees go into the winter unprepared, therefore, they are more damaged by frost.
However, excess soil moisture is also dangerous for the plant, since water is displaced by oxygen from the soil, the accumulation of carbon dioxide in it and, as a result, inhibition and dying of the root system.
In October, during the fall season, it is necessary to carry out the last watering – moisture-charging, or winter, which activates root growth, increases the winter hardiness of the tree and prevents the drying out of shoots. This should be done around the circumference of the near-trunk circle for young trees and around the periphery of the crown for fruit-bearing ones (based on at least 50 liters of water per 1 m2). Watering can be done using wells with a diameter of 10-20 cm (made with a drill) to a depth of 50 cm (zone of active roots). Wells are convenient to use for no more than two seasons; nutrient solutions for feeding the garden can also be added there. In autumn, the wells are closed, protecting the soil and roots from freezing. It is very convenient to water the garden along the furrows along the length of the garden and in the center of the aisles.
DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATERING THE ORCHARD
A garden irrigation system such as drip irrigation is a very promising method. A similar method provides a slow flow of water into the zone of location of the roots. For a young tree, one dropper is enough near the trunk, and for adults – two located on both sides of the trunk. For a berry bush, one is enough.
Drip irrigation of the garden can be used not only on a flat but also on terraced areas when the site is located on the slopes.
Now on sale are freely sold hoses for drip irrigation with auxiliary adapters. Therefore, watering can be carried out from conventional 200-liter barrels, storage tanks, not only trees, berries, grapes, but also individual vegetable crops. For garden drip irrigation, you need to determine the irrigation rate, calculate the irrigation time for which the full rate will pour. Such a garden irrigation system can work in the absence of owners. This is a very good idea since the water will be uniformly supplied from the storage tank already settled and warmed up in the sun, which will have a beneficial effect on the general condition of the fruit plant, and especially on the development of the root system.
In addition, in this way, it is possible to organize and fertilizing fruit plants by calculating the dose of fertilizers. Fertilizers for this type of work during the growing season, it is advisable to use soluble (Kemira Combi, Kemira Lux, ammonium nitrate and urea).
Errors when using the garden drip irrigation system:
- There is not enough volumetric storage tank.
- It is not allowed to pour cold water directly from the well. Remember that cold water causes not only stress at the root system but also its decay.
- On strawberries and vegetables, it is necessary to strictly control the droppers according to the time of day so that, before dark, excess wet vapor evaporates from the plantation.